Animals often attract and assess mates using complex signals. Rigorously testing these criteria necessitates a synthetic approach, combining areas of research like community ecology, functional morphology, adaptation, quantitative genetics and phylogenetic systematics. In 1955 he completed an exhaustive taxonomic analysis of the ant genus Lasius. Character displacement in style length between pollinator-sharing Clerodendrum trichotomum and C. izuinsulare (Verbenaceae) T. Miyake1 and K. Inoue2 1Department of Biology, Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan 2Biological Institute and Herbarium, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, Nagano, Japan Received December 18, 2002; accepted June 16, 2003 If resources are limiting, the species are likely to compete strongly. The process is not as ubiquitous as once believed but, according to E. O. Wilson, character displacement still “represents one process by which communities can be organized, mediating a rise in general biological diversity.”, Orientation, Navigation and Homing in Animals, Crypsis (Deception In Predator-Prey Interaction). Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Ethological isolation has been observed between some mosquito species in the Southeast Asian Aedes albopictus group, suggesting—from laboratory experiments of mating trials—that selection against hybrids is occurring, in the presence of reproductive character displacement. Such differentiation could facilitate speciation by enhancing reproductive isolation between incipient species, although empirical evidence for it at early stages of divergence when gene flow still occurs between the species is relatively scarce. In playback experiments, females from pure populations had no preference based on song; however, females from a genetically intermediate population preferred G. navajo song. character displacement beyond any statistical doubt and describe the biological nature of species interaction. A new species, Ornebius apterus sp. While mating preferences are central to pre-zygotic isolation, certain preferences and traits may make greater contributions. These results suggest that interspecific aggression may have caused character displacement in wing spot size of C. splendens, because the intensity of aggression towards large‐spotted males is likely to increase with relative abundance of C. virgo males. Such divergence in sympatry is presumed to be adaptive—reducing niche overlap or heterospecific mating. Aggression between species is a seldom-considered but potentially widespread mechanism of character displacement in secondary sexual characters. Throughout evolutionary history, insects have adapted to diverse habitats with overlapping distributions and subsequent interspecific interactions, such as resource competition and reproductive interference, leading to character displacement. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the selective pressure exerted by the challenge from a related species is frequency dependent. Under such conditions, natural selection favors a divergence in the characters–morphology, ecology, behavior, or physiology–of the organism. This wingless species is monophyletic with Ornebius spp., which are all singing species. The descriptions of calling songs are based on field notes and the analysis of extensive recordings made in the field and under controlled laboratory conditions. Ecological character displacement is a process of phenotypic differentiation of sympatric populations caused by interspecific competition. The first fixed character we consider is calling song. (6) Differences must be genetically based. Geological data suggest that the populations resulted from multiple divergence and speciation events over the past 13,000 yr. Thus, interspecific aggression may be an evolutionarily significant force that is able to cause divergence in secondary sexual characters. For most species data are adequate to show the effect of temperature upon frequency, pulse rate, and (for chirping species) chirp rate. For example, character displacement in a host—parasite system can lead to parasite specialization. Six criteria have been developed to establish character displacement as the mechanism for differences between sympatric species. Thus, the characters diverged. species have been found in other groups that have conspicuous, non-morphological, species recognition signals or that have been intensively studied. 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